Geoscience Research Institute Origins 6 2: On a quiet moonlight night in the yearthe British-Indian liner Quetta was traveling through the Torres Strait near Thursday Island in northern Australia.
Types The three principal reef types are: The most common type, a fringing reef is one that is directly attached to a shore or borders it with an intervening shallow channel or lagoon.
Many fringing reefs can be found in the Florida Keys. A barrier reef also borders the shoreline, but it is separated from a mainland or island shore by a deep channel or lagoon; that is, it is separated by a greater distance from the shoreline a mile or more and there is open, often deep water separating it from the adjacent land mass.
An atoll reef is a more or less continuous circular or oval barrier reef extending all the way around a lagoon without a central island. In other words, if a fringing reef or barrier reef were to form around a volcanic island, and then the island were to sink entirely below the sea level, while the atoll continues to expand upward, an atoll would be formed.
Passages may exist between the central lagoon and the ocean. An example is the Bikini Atoll. A small atoll in the Maldives. Inhabited cay in the Maldives Other reef types or variants are: Patch reef — an isolated, comparatively small Cause effect of coral sea outcrop, usually within a lagoon or embayment, often circular and surrounded by sand or seagrass.
Patch reefs, which are basically small patches of reef, are common. Apron reef — a short reef resembling a fringing reef, but more sloped; extending out and downward from a point or peninsular shore Bank reef or platform reef — isolated reefs with a linear or semi-circular shaped-outline and flat top, larger than a patch reef.
Ribbon reef — a long, narrow, possibly winding or sinuous reef, usually associated with an atoll lagoon and parallel the shelf break Table reef — an isolated reef, approaching an atoll type, but without a lagoon. Habili - reef in the Red Sea that does not reach the surface near enough to cause visible surf, although it may a hazard to ships from the Arabic for "unborn" Microatolls — certain species of corals form communities called microatolls.
The vertical growth of microatolls is limited by average tidal height. By analyzing growth morphologies, microatolls offer a low resolution record of patterns of sea level change.
Fossilized microatolls can also be dated using radioactive carbon dating. Such methods have been used to reconstruct Holocene sea levels. Material eroded from the reef piles up on parts of the reef or lagoon, forming an area above sea level.
Plants can stabilize cays enough to become habitable by humans. Cays occur in tropical environments throughout the PacificAtlanticand Indian Oceans including the Caribbean and on the Great Barrier Reef and Belize Barrier Reefwhere they provide habitable and agricultural land for hundreds of thousands of people.
When a coral reef cannot keep up with the sinking of a volcanic island, a seamount or guyot is formed. The tops of seamounts and guyots are below the surface. Seamounts are rounded at the top and guyots are flat.
The flat top of the guyot, also called a tablemount, is due to erosion by waves, winds, and atmospheric processes. Formation Most existing coral reefs were formed after the last glacial period when melting ice caused the sea level to rise and flood the continental shelves.
This means that most coral reefs are less than 10, years old. As coral reef communities were established on the shelves, they built reefs that grew upwards, keeping pace with the rise in sea level.
Reefs that did not keep pace could become drowned reefs, covered by so much water that there was insufficient light for further survival. It starts with a fringing reef forming around an extinct volcanic island as the island and ocean floor subsides.
As the subsidence continues, the fringing reef becomes a barrier reef, and ultimately an atoll reef. Subsequent drilling proved this correct.Coral bleaching and ocean acidification are two climate-related impacts to coral reefs O ne of the most important threats facing coral reefs on a global scale is a big one: climate change.
Scientists agree that climate change is real, and this spells real trouble for the world’s coral reefs. The Battle of Coral Sea was a four day battle that took place in May of This battle was caused by the desire of the Japanese to control the Coral Sea during World War II.
The Effect of Global Warming on Ocean Currents. Across the world, movement of water on a mass scale occurs due to differences in water salinity and temperature, and because of wind patterns.
15 Causes of Coral Reef Destruction - Effects, coral reefs are indeed beautiful, home for a million sea creatures in the ocean, no need to destruct. The Battle of the Coral Sea, fought from 4 to 8 May , was a by the experienced Japanese invasion troops.
The U.S. Navy also exaggerated the damage it inflicted, which was to cause the press to treat its One of the most significant effects of the Coral Sea . Ship pollution is a huge source of ocean pollution, the most devastating effect of which is oil spills. Crude oil lasts for years in the sea and is extremely toxic to marine life, often suffocating marine animals to death once it entraps them.