United Kingdom[ edit ] Part of Charles Booth 's colour-coded poverty mapshowing Westminster in - a pioneering social study of poverty that shocked the population. From the s onwards, the terrible conditions of the urban poor in the slums of London began to attract the attention of social reformers and philanthropists, who began a movement for social housing. The first area to be targeted was the notorious slum called the Devil's Acre near Westminster. This new movement was largely funded by George Peabody and the Peabody Trust and had a lasting impact on the urban character of Westminster.
Regular steam ferry service began in New York City in the early s and horse-drawn omnibuses plied city streets starting in the late s.
Expanding networks of horse railways emerged by the midth century. The electric streetcar became the dominant mass transit vehicle a half century later. During this era, mass transit had a significant impact on American urban development. In the s, congressional subsidies began to reinvigorate mass transit and heavy-rail systems opened in several cities, followed by light rail systems in several others in the next decades.
Today concerns about environmental sustainability and urban revitalization have stimulated renewed interest in the benefits of mass transit. Regular steam ferry service connected Brooklyn and New Jersey to Manhattan in the early s and horse-drawn omnibuses plied city streets starting in the late s.
A half century later, technological innovation and urban industrialization enabled the electric streetcar to become the dominant mass transit vehicle. During this era, mass transit had a significant impact on American urban development, suburbanization, the rise of technological networks, consumerism, and even race and gender relations.
In the s, when congressional subsidies began to reinvigorate mass transit, heavy-rail systems opened in cities such as San Francisco and Washington D. As the 21st century approached, concern about environmental sustainability and urban revitalization stimulated renewed interest in the benefits of mass transit.
Transit history in American cities is rooted in different phases of urbanization, the rise of large corporate entities during the industrial era, the relationship between technology and society, and other broad themes within American history.
At the same time, mass transit history shows the value of emphasizing local contexts, as the details of urban transit unfolded differently across the United States based on municipal traditions, environments, economies, and phases of growth.
Ferry Boats, Omnibuses, and the Beginnings of Mass Transit in the Early 19th Century The ferry boats that regularly crossed the waters of a few American cities in the early 19th century provided an important precedent to the mass transit industry that emerged later in the century.
Before the age of industrialization, the cities of the American merchant economy were primarily sites of commercial exchange of goods and services.
Boston, New York, Philadelphia, and most other urban centers were dense, port cities located along rivers, bays, and other bodies of water. And while this geography facilitated the transshipment of goods, it also impeded the expansion of urban settlement.
During the early s, Robert Fulton, an engineer and inventor, established a regular ferry service using steam power. The service linked lower Manhattan with Jersey City over the Hudson River, as well as the village of Brooklynat the time a small suburban settlement across the East River. Ferries also demonstrate the early connections between transit and urban expansion, as the service allowed commuters living in areas such as the newly subdivided Brooklyn Heights neighborhood to overcome obstacles for continuous settlement posed by bodies of water.
Typically, regular users of this service enjoyed above-average incomes and social positions. Unlike most working people, they could afford the expense of a daily fare. Thirteen companies employed seventy steamboats for more than twenty different ferry routes.
Ferry service is still an integral part of daily commuting in some cities today. Despite its success, however, ferry boat service could do little to improve transportation over land.
This operation—a large horse-drawn wheeled carriage similar to a stagecoach yet open for service to the general public at a set fare—originated in Nantes, France, in Omnibus service spread to Paris two years later and to other French cities as well as London by It spread from larger to smaller cities in subsequent decades.
Since most vehicles featured unpadded seats and typically travelled on uneven cobblestone roads if paved at allpassengers experienced an uncomfortable ride. This growing demographic found private stagecoaches too expensive, but they had the affluence and desire to commute to work instead of walking.
Horse streetcars—commonly known as horsecars —traveled on rail instead of road, and had numerous advantages over the omnibus. The use of rails provided a faster, quieter, more comfortable ride, while enabling a more efficient use of horse power.Traffic congestion in Britain’s towns and cities grew with the exponential rise of car ownership in the s and s.
The Buchanan Report, Traffic in Towns (), was a pioneering response to this problem, advancing a series of radical solutions for how cities could be adapted to mass car.
Urban Parks - Like most Americans, I expect to find in every city, every town, even in every village in the country, an outdoor recreation area or what is usually called a park; and I am seldom disappointed.
Eastern cities were the first to have urban freeways and expressways. Immigrants can participate in changing a city's __________ by bringing different pronunciations, accents, and vocabulary to the city. Default maximum speed limits apply to all roads where no specific lower numeric speed limit is already in force. The default speed limit is known as the national speed limit . Urban renewal (also called urban regeneration in the United Kingdom, urban renewal or urban redevelopment in the United States) is a program of land redevelopment in cities, often where there is urban decay.
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Get started now! Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: / Thus even as U.S. policy makers after World War II were responding to the proliferation of automobiles by building more urban freeways, Western European governments were strengthening their support for public transportation.
reference is made primarily to Great Britain. Montreal remains a city of great charm, vivacity, and gaiety, as well as one of unquestioned modernity.
The s also saw the proliferation of automobiles and freeways, and in the Metropolitan Boulevard, an east-west throughway that spanned the island, was opened.
The class system was phased out by, and the number of districts. Traffic congestion in Britain’s towns and cities grew with the exponential rise of car ownership in the s and s. The Buchanan Report, Traffic in Towns (), was a pioneering response to this problem, advancing a series of radical solutions for how cities could be adapted to mass car.